Jeonghwa Park, Robert Friendship, Scott Weese, Cate Dewey and Zvonimir Poljak University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

of the respondents expressed concern that treatment Exudative epidermitis (EE) or greasy pig disease is was of little value and that response was poor. caused by Staphylococcus hyicus. Certain strains of S. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that all iso- hyicus produce heat-labile exfoliative toxins that are lates of S .hyicus and almost all isolates of S. aureus important in the pathogenesis of the disease. Infection were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin and the of skin wounds during the early suckling period is the majority were also resistant to ceftiofur (Figure 1). typical presentation. Recently many herds have Figure1. Percent of isolates resistant to antimicrobials moved away from clipping needle teeth at birth. There may be a resultant, an increase in prevalence of EE. Traditionally, an injection of penicillin has been the treatment of choice but antimicrobial resistance to penicillin has been noted (1). There are several studies determining the occurrence of different genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in S. hyicus (2) but there is limited information about the distribution of the mecA gene which encodes the low affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP 2A. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent of The percentage of isolates of S. hyicus and S. aureus antimicrobial resistance of S.hyicus and to determine from which the mecA gene was demonstrated was whether the mecA gene is present in S. hyicus in On- 2.73% (3/110), and 5.45% (6/110), respectively. The mecA gene was present in 12.96% (14/108) of the S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs from these same Materials and Methods
In a survey, farmers (n=49) were asked how they treated EE and whether the treatment worked. In ad- Discussion
dition herds (n=17) with EE problems were visited Penicillin was identified as the most common treat- and skin swabs and scrapings were obtained from ment choice by pig farmers and yet all isolates from pigs with clinical signs of EE (generally 6 pigs per cases of EE were shown to be resistant to not only farm). Bacterial culture was performed on the sam- penicillin but in most cases resistant to the entire ples with S. hyicus and S. aureus recovered from family of beta-lactam antibiotics. These results ex- 77.3 % (85/110) and 45.9% (50/109) of the samples plain why farmers reported a poor response to treat- respectively. Susceptibility to penicillin (pen), am- ment of EE. Previous researchers have noted that picillin (amp), ceftiofur (cef), spectinomycin (spec), penicillin-resistant isolates of S. hyicus containing the sulphonamides (sul), tetracycline (tet), tiamulin (tia) blaZ gene were relatively common in the pig popula- and trimethoprim/sulfa (tri/sul) was determined by tion, affecting 50 to 75% of isolates (2). Methicillin- the agar diffusion method defined by the Clinical and resistant S. aureus has been shown to be widespread Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). In addition, in Ontario pig farms (4) and therefore it is not sur- molecular studies were conducted on isolates to de- prising that the mecA gene was isolated from S. termine the presence of the mecA gene using PCR aureus in these pigs. The relationship between S. and Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis aureus and S. hyicus and the possibility of gene trans- fer between these bacteria needs to be investigated Based on the survey, 69.4% (34/49) of farmers used References
topical treatments routinely to treat EE, including 1. Wegener et al. (1993). Vet Microbiol, 34:363-72 mixtures of topical antibiotics, antiseptics and min- 2. Aarestrup et al (2002). Vet Microbiol, 89:83-94 eral oil. In addition, 57% of respondents said that 3. Wielders et al (2002). J Clin Microb, 40: 3970-5 they used injectable antibiotics and 82% indicated 4. Khanna et al (2008). Vet Microbiol, 128:298-303 injectable penicillin as the treatment of choice. Many

Source: http://www.ontariopork.on.ca/Portals/0/Docs/Research/reports/11-12-2010%20final%20abstract%20for%20IPVS.pdf

Reporter's notebook: german drug firm provides cipro

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