Microsoft word - nitrate_patches.doc

What are nitrate patches?
Used primarily for improving blood supply to the heart, nitrate patches have been recently shown to improve healing in chronic tendon injuries. Please refer to the abstracts below. Using nitratepatches for tendon injuries is currently "off-label" but is backed by strong scientific evidence.
Are there any side effects?
Headache is the main side effect, although some people mayexperience small drops in blood pressure. Younger people tend to suffer greater side effects with patches. These effects are minimal if 1/4 of a 5mg/24hr patchdaily is used (which can be done with the brands NitroDur and MiniTran - other patches cannot be cut into quarters as they contain cream). For people sensitive to the drug an even lower dose (1/8 of a patch per day) can be used to start.
The medication is incompatible (and should not be used when taking) other vasodilators such as Viagra, Cialis, Levitra and similar drugs.
Topical nitric oxide application in the treatment of chronic extensor
tendinosis at the elbow: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-
controlled clinical trial.
Paoloni JA, Appleyard RC, Nelson J, Murrell GA.
BACKGROUND: Extensor tendinosis ("tennis elbow") is a degenerative overuse tendinopathy of the wrist extensors at their attachment to the lateral humeralepicondyle. No treatment has been universally successful. Topical application of nitric oxide has been used effectively to treat fractures and cutaneous wounds inanimal models, presumably by stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblasts.
PURPOSE: To determine whether topical nitric oxide can improve outcome ofpatients with extensor tendinosis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. METHODS: Eighty-six patients with extensor tendinosis were randomized into two equal groups; both were instructed toperform a standard tendon rehabilitation program. One group received an active glyceryl trinitrate transdermal patch, and the other group received a placebopatch. RESULTS: Patients in the glyceryl trinitrate group had significantly reduced elbow pain with activity at 2 weeks, reduced epicondylar tenderness at 6 and 12 weeks, and an increase in wrist extensor mean peak force and total workat 24 weeks. At 6 months, 81% of treated patients were asymptomatic during activities of daily living, compared with 60% of patients who had tendonrehabilitation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Application of topical nitric oxide improved early pain with activity, late functional measures, and outcomes of patients with Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic noninsertional achilles
tendinopathy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Paoloni JA, Appleyard RC, Nelson J, Murrell GA.
BACKGROUND: Noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative overuse disorder. No method has been universally successful in treating this condition.
Topically applied nitric oxide has been shown, in animal models, to be effective for the treatment of fractures and cutaneous wounds through mechanisms thatmay include stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. The goal of the present study was to determine if topical glyceryl trinitrate improves clinical outcome measures in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS: Aprospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving a total of sixty-five patients (eighty-four Achilles tendons) was performed to comparecontinuous application of topical glyceryl trinitrate (at a dosage of 1.25 mg per twenty-four hours) with rehabilitation alone for the treatment of noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the glyceryltrinitrate group showed reduced pain with activity at twelve weeks (p = 0.02) and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.03), reduced night pain at twelve weeks (p =0.04), reduced tenderness at twelve weeks (p = 0.02), decreased pain scores after the hop test at twenty-four weeks (p = 0.005), and increased ankle plantarflexor mean total work compared with the baseline level at twenty-four weeks (p = 0.04). Twenty-eight (78%) of thirty-six tendons in the glyceryl trinitrate group were asymptomatic with activities of daily living at six months, compared withtwenty (49%) of forty-one tendons in the placebo group (p = 0.001, chi-square analysis). The mean effect size for all outcome measures was 0.14.
CONCLUSIONS: Topical glyceryl trinitrate significantly reduced pain with activity and at night, improved functional measures, and improved outcomes in patients


How much caffeine is too much

How much caffeine is too much? Latest studies show moderation is key By Karen Collins, R.D. Updated: 3:03 p.m. ET Dec. 3, 2004 A day without a latte, cup of tea, or caffeinated soft drink is unthinkable for many people. Yet caffeine poses some health risks. Although individuals seem to differ in their vulnerability to caffeine’s influence, if drunk in moderation, the risks appear negligible.

IN THE SECURITIES AND FUTURES APPEALS TRIBUNAL IN THE MATTER OF a Decision made by the Securities and Futures Commission under sections 194 and 198 of the Securities and Futures Ordinance, Cap. 571 AND IN THE MATTER OF section 217 of the Securities and Futures Ordinance, Cap. 571 ----------------------------------------------------- DETERMINATION -----------------------------------------

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